In mineralogical structure of chernozems primary minerals prevail. From secondary (high-disperse) minerals in the majority of chernozem soils minerals meet there are such chernozems in which oozy fraction minerals of potassium group prevail.
In (illuvial) lower false at a depth of 1,5-2 m or more deeply chernozems often contain plaster in the form of the small crystals filling a breed time, and sometimes at this depth the raised content of readily soluble salts is noted.
The areas of soils with the low content of phosphorus are made by 73,65 hectares or 64,7%. Reserved P2O5 thus of 1,01 - 1,50 mg on 100 grams or 30-45 kg in the arable horizon on hectare. The areas of soils with the average content of phosphorus make 2650 hectares or 23,2%. Reserved P2O5 in 100 g of the soil of 1,51-3,00 mg. The arable horizon on hectare contains 45-90 kg of phosphates.
At a depth of 0,5-2 meters or glubinoyuzhny chernozems often contain plaster in the form of the small crystals filling a breed time in the lower horizons, and sometimes at this depth also the raised content of readily soluble salts is noted. The southern chernozems are subdivided into the following childbirth: usual, solonetzic, carbonate, deeply boiling.
At all types and childbirth the horizon And 25-40 cm has dark gray or dark-brown coloring with a small brown shade of komkovaty structure. The horizon of B1 is characterized by clear brown-brown coloring by komkovato-prismatic structure. General power of a humic layer (A+V of 45-60 cm. In the illuvial carbonate horizon the beloglazka is usually clearly expressed. The line of boiling up is located in the lower hollow horizon of B1 or on border of a humic layer.
Chernozems occupy the southern part of a steppe zone and directly border on the dark-chestnut. The horizon And 25-40 cm has dark gray or dark-brown coloring by often small brown shade, komkovaty structure. The horizon In is characterized by brown-brown coloring by komkovato-prismatic structure. General power of a humic layer (And + 45-60 cm
Rational use of mineral and organic fertilizers, increase of level of an agrotechnology and other actions allowed to increase productivity grain by more than two time, sunflower by 1/6 times.
For state farm soils the optimum content of mobile phosphorus has to be not lower than 3,0-4,5 mg on 100 g of the soil. At such content of phosphates in the soil also other batteries are most effectively used. Additional entering into the soil of the raised doses of phosphoric fertilizers at the optimum raised maintenance of P2O5 does not provide an essential increase of a crop, and on the contrary, conducts to an unproductive consumption of fertilizers.
Meadow and chernozem soils are close to chernozems, but special hydrological conditions give a number of specific signs: more intensive coloring of the top part of a humic profile, some prolixity of a humic layer and shaliness of the lower horizons.
The profile of meadow and chernozem soils morphologically is in the main close to a chernozem profile, however special hydrological conditions give it a number of specific signs: more intensive coloring of the top part of a humic profile, some prolixity of a humic layer and glivatost of the low horizons. The profile of meadow and chernozem soils is subdivided into the following horizons: A1 (An), B1,B2C.